Week 2 in Review

Animal Physiology

Computer Science for the Sciences
- booleans don't have xor: and, or, not
- basic structure of a program
- relational operators: <, >, ==, <=, >=, !
- raw_input is always a string
- if statements

Animal Behaviour
- behaviour as adaptation:

  • looking at convergent and divergent evolution to justify hypotheses
  • need for statistical rigour to avoid confirmation bias
  • need for skepticism: just because the evidence doesn't contradict an explanation doesn't mean the explanation is right
- History of study of animal behaviour:
  • instinct only
  • comparative psychology

Organic Chemistry
- IUPAC naming:
  • Parent (longest continuous string of C's):
    • Number of C's: meth-, eth-, prop-, but-, pent-, hex-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec-
    • Shape: if cyclic: cyclo-
  • Suffix:
    • C-C bonds:
      • all single: alkane
      • double: alkene
      • triple: alkyne
    • Functional group:
      • C-X (where X is a halogen): alkyl halide
      • C-OH: alcohol
      • C-NR2: amine
      • C-O-C: ether
      • O=C-OH: aldehyde
      • O=C: ketone
      • O=C-OH: carboxylic acid
      • O=C-O: ester
      • O=C-NR2: amide
  • Prefix (substituents):
    • number carbons to give lowest numbers
    • list substituents alphabetically
- Newman projections: staggered, eclipsed, gauche
- Conformational Stereoisomers: conformers, rotation around C-C bond
- Torsional strain, steric strain
- Energy profiles of conformers
- Cyclocalkanes:
  • angle strain and stability
  • torsional and steric strain, substituents
  • cyclohexane: chair and boat conformations, ring-flip
  • cis-/trans- isomerism
  • diaxial vs. diequatorial isomers

Microbiology: The bacterial cell
- Just history, invention of microscopes, agar plates, Pasteur's flask discovery, germ theory of disease, antiseptic technique, H. pylori,
- really hope I don't have to remember all these dates and names. That would be bullshit.
- Koch's postulates:
  1. suspected pathogen should be present in all cases of disease and absent in all healthy individuals
  2. suspected pathogen should be grown in pure culture
  3. cells from pure culture should cause disease in healthy individual
  4. pathogen should be reisolated and shown to be the same as original

- development of field of immunology, vaccines
- research driven by agriculture and industry, not medicine